The determination of the various species of truffles is essentially based on morphological characters such as shape, size, color, ornamentations of the rind, aspect of the gelba, fragrance and flavour.
The determination of the species in the laboratory takes place through the recognition of the spores or with techniques of bio molecular analysis.
In the world, the species of fungi that are currently classified as Tuber number around 63, in Italy there are 25, but only 9 are considered edible and 6 those most commonly marketed:
• Tuber Magnatum Pico (White Truffle of Alba or of Acqualagna or prized white)
• Tuber Melanosporum Vitt. (black truffle of Norcia or prized black)
• Tuber Aestivum Vitt. (Burgundy)
• Tuber Borchii Vitt. (Bianchetto or Marzuolo)
• Tuber brumale Vitt. (Winter)
• Tuber Macrosporum Vitt. (Black Smooth)
(Texts and images kindly provided by the National Truffle Studies Center)